SoC implementation with dependable 50% duty cycles
Keywords:system-on-chip? SoC? IP? duty cycle? simulation?
This article describes a new approach to implementing clock dividers in a system-on-chip design that supports both high performance and low power. It uses a dual edge counter-based configurable frequency divider that can not only divide the clock frequency for both even and odd configurable division factors, but at the same time maintains a 50% duty cycle of the output divided clock.
Maintaining a 50% duty cycle of the output clock for even division factors is not much of a challenge. But when it comes to odd division factors, extra design efforts are required. So by deployment of a dual edge counter, it is possible to build a configurable frequency divider with a 50% duty cycle of the output clock for both odd and even division factors.
Introduction to clock dividers
A clock divider is a circuit that takes an input signal of a frequency, ?in, and generates an output signal of a frequency:
where 'n' is an integer, i.e. the division factor.
As SoCs get complex due to the integration of more IP-based dedicated function circuit blocks to enhance the functionality of a chip, these blocks often require their own specific clock frequencies, each with its own frequency limitations.
A duty cycle is the time that a circuit block or SoC spends in an active state. In a periodic event, duty cycle is the ratio time it is in an active state versus the time it is in a standby state.
where D is the duty cycle, r is the duration that the function is active, and T is the period of the function. For example, a 60% duty cycle means the signal is high 60% of the time and low 40% of the time.
Conventional frequency divider circuit
Conventional counter-based frequency divider designs make use of binary counters that trigger either on the positive or the negative edge of the clock. The downside in terms of SoC silicon real estate is that this usually requires separate circuitry for odd and even division factors. One such counter-based frequency divider design is shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Conventional counter-based frequency divider circuit. |
Frequency divider circuit configurable for division factor up to N-1
In our proposed design (figure 2) we use a dual edge counter that gets reset whenever there is a transition on the output divided clock. Not only does this reduce the size of the binary counter, it now only needs to count up to a max value of (N-1) versus (2N-1) in a conventional design. As power consumption is one of the key factors in SOC design, the proposed design uses clock gating to avoid unnecessary dynamic power consumption.
Not only does this approach reduce silicon area C and thus power requirementsit also allows any circuit block in which it is implemented to maintain an output duty cycle of 50%.
Figure 2: Proposed configurable clock frequency divider circuit. |
Table 1 summarises the desired signal value at the output in terms of the division factor N, which may be even or odd.
Table 1: Proposed frequency divider design approach. |
The design algorithm we used for the proposed clock frequency divider is shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Flowchart explaining the steps for the operation of proposed design. |
Figure 4 shows the simulation waveforms for the proposed frequency divider design for both ODD and EVEN Division factors.
Figure 4: Simulation waveforms for Divide by ten and Divide by thirteen. |
Table 2 shows the results of the use of this new approach in a design that has been figured for a division factor up to 15. It shows that the proposed circuit has less area and least power consumption when compared against the conventional circuit.
Table 2: Comparison of the conventional and proposed circuit. |
Based on our analysis and operation in some typical SoC designs, the proposed 'Dual Edge Counter Based Configurable Frequency Divider Design' consistently generates an output divided clock with 50% duty cycle with the desired division factor. It is also generic in its design approach and implementation and can be used in any complex SoC design to gain maximum performance and to meet unusual frequency requirements.
Unlike the fixed factor dedicated approach used in traditional designs, the counter-based clock frequency divider implementation ensures that the circuit can be reconfigured for a range of division factors, depending upon the width of the counter.
About the author
Gaurav Goyal works with Freescale Semiconductor as Senior Design Engineer and has more than 3 years experience. He is working with the physical design team at Freescale with Synthesis as his area of specialisation. He has been involved in several block-level and chip-level designs in technology ranging from 90nm to 40nm. He has been involved in digital circuit design for standard cells in several technology nodes (180nm, 90nm, 65nm, 55nm, 40nm ) for a wide range of processes like bulk technology, floating gate & non-volatile memory.
Rohit Goyal received his B.E. degree in Electronics and Communication from the National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India in the year 2011.He is currently working with Freescale Semiconductor, Noida as a Design Engineer. His primary responsibilities include FPGA Prototyping, Emulation and Verification. His research interests include high speed and low power design algorithms and architectures.
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