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What is forward error correction?
In telecommunication and information theory, forward error correction (FEC) is a system of error control for data transmission, whereby the sender adds redundant data, known as an error-correction code (ECC), to its messages. This allows the receiver to detect and correct errors (with some limitations) without asking the sender for additional data. The advantages of FEC are that a back-channel is not required and retransmission of data can often be avoided though this is achieved at the cost of higher bandwidth requirements. FEC is therefore applied where retransmissions are relatively costly or impossible. In particular, FEC information is usually added to most mass storage devices to protect against damage to the stored data.
For instance, electrical or magnetic interference inside a computer system can cause a single bit of DRAM to flip to the opposite state. This problem can be mitigated by using DRAM modules that include extra (redundant) memory bits and memory controllers that exploit these bits. These extra bits are used to record parity or to use an ECC. Parity allows the detection of an odd number of wrong bits. The ECC may allow a single-bit error to be corrected and double-bit errors to be detected.
Error detection and correction in computer systems keeps going in and out of vogue. Seymour Cray famously said "parity is for farmers" to explain why he left it out of the CDC 6600. He included parity in the CDC 7600, and reputedly said "I learned that a lot of farmers buy computers."
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2002-02-01 Xicor closed loop architecture allows auto-correction
The ODIN architecture for high-performance adaptive closed-loop control allows systems designers to implement auto-correction for errors related to time, temperature or other system-level effects.
2008-01-24 Wide mains, 19V/8A power supply including power factor correction
On Semi's NCP1605 is a power factor controller that features a "pfcOK" pin to enable the downstream converter when the power factor correction stage is ready for operation.
2005-06-22 Using critical conduction mode for high power factor correction
This app note discussed power factor correction (PFC), which is a necessity for off-line switchmode power supplies requiring output powers of 75W or more.
2008-02-19 TV encoder LSI has built-in image correction
ROHM has introduced a TV encoder LSI featuring a hardware image correctionAdaptive Image Enhancerthat offers high precision, discrete correction of images in real time.
2006-11-15 Thyristor modules enable power factor correction caps
Epcos' new thyristors enable power factor correction capacitors to be switched silently and without wear, for a longer life.
2004-12-10 Single error correction and double error detection
This app note describes the implementation of an error correction control (ECC) module in a Virtex-II, Virtex-II Pro, or Virtex-4 device.
2003-05-27 SFQ noise correction calibration software SFQ_CNCAL
This application note presents a guideline for calibrating the C/N signal produced by Rohde & Schwarz's SFQ TV test transmitter using the software SFQ_CNCAL.
2010-02-19 Resonant converter packs power factor correction
From NXP Semiconductors comes the GreenChip TEA1713 resonant half-bridge converter claimed to be the first resonant controller with integrated power factor correction.
2007-09-12 Rectifiers boast power factor correction efficiency
Qspeed Semiconductor has introduced its Q-Series rectifier family designed for use in power factor correction circuits that deliver from 200W to 1,000W of power.
2001-06-13 Power factor correction with Ultrafast diodes
This application note explains how to achieve power factor correction for power supplies using high-speed diodes.
2007-09-13 Power factor correction in power conversion applications using the dsPIC DSC
This application note shows characteristics of some popular battery chemistries for portable applications and fully integrated low cost single-cell Li-ion/lithium polymer battery charge management solutions.
2008-06-24 PoleCap: Power factor correction on site
In this PQS application note series, Rajneesh Shukla gives some technical information on the PoleCap. Also, it contains an in-depth case study for the first outdoor application in India with approximately 14,000 PoleCap units installed on poles.
2007-11-01 Perform power factor correction efficiently
Take a peek at the inner workings of a board that can perform continuous conduction mode power factor correction efficiently and with a minimum number of peripheral components.
2008-06-24 Optimized design of power factor correction systems
This application note highlights some of the most common problems occurring in PFC systems and proposes methods for their optimized design.
2010-08-19 ONFI updates spec with error correction
The Open NAND Flash Interface releases the ONFI 2.3 specification that now includes the EZ-NAND protocol for error correction.
2002-10-28 Measurement reading and modifying the correction data for system errors and power of a ZVR vector network analyzer
This application note covers system error and power correction data for vector network analyzers of the ZVR family.
2003-09-22 Maxim RF ICs provide AM-PM distortion correction
Maxim Integrated Products has released what it claims is the world's first monolithic RF predistorter ICs.
2009-05-28 MAX1452 nonlinearity-correction application circuit
Although nonlinearity correction has not been implemented in the MAX1452, it can be achieved simply by using an additional three resistors in the application circuit. This application note presents such a circuit and provides data that supports its effectiveness.
2011-09-22 Mask correction feature speeds up IC processing
The Tachyon MB-SRAF offers an expanded imaging window that the company says improves 2x-nm designs.
2001-03-01 Library generators employ optical correction at cell level
This technology article discusses the enhancement of cell-based designs with the evolution of EDA.
2007-11-12 LED drivers offer dot correction, grayscale functions
Texas Instruments has introduced two 16-channel, constant-current sink, LED drivers with dot correction and grayscale on one IC for high-quality video.
2010-02-26 LED driver integrates power factor correction
The ICL8001G LED driver from Infineon enables up to 90 percent efficiency and is the only primary controlled off-line LED drive with integrated Power Factor Correction.
2011-04-08 LED driver features DOT Correction
Linear Technology introduces the LT3746, a 32-channel LED driver integrated with a 55V step-down controller.
2007-05-02 Inventory correction pulls down TSMC sales, profits
The lingering effects of an inventory correction caused Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co.'s sales to drop and profit to plummet in the first quarter.
2001-05-09 Implementing the gamma correction algorithm using the TMS320C2xx DSP
This application note describes how to implement the gamma correction algorithm using Texas Instruments' TMS320C2xx DSP family.
2008-06-24 HomeCap: Residential power factor correction
Power factor correction has found widespread use in commercial applications, both within industrial facilities, office complexes and in the power distribution grid in close proximity to commercial clients.
2013-07-15 Geometric Processors boasts lens distortion correction
The GW3300 and GW3400 programmable geometric processors from GEO Semiconductor bring dewarping and digital calibration to automotive, surveillance and cloud cameras.
2004-10-14 Foundries face inventory correction, then downturn
Prospects for a long upturn in the silicon foundry business have been cut short by the sudden IC inventory correction phenomenon followed by a possible downturn in 2005.
2001-03-26 Forward Error Correction In Optical Networks
This paper examines the FEC (forward error correction) techniques in optical networks developed primarily in the ANSI T1X1.5 committee and submitted for ITU ratification as formal recommendations.
2000-12-20 For optimum power factor correction: More power with PhaseCap
This application note discusses Siemens Matsushita Components' environment-friendly PhaseCap phase shifter capacitors designed for power factor correction in low-voltage switchgear applications.
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