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What is FEC?
In telecommunication and information theory, forward error correction (FEC) is a system of error control for data transmission, whereby the sender adds redundant data, known as an error-correction code (ECC), to its messages. This allows the receiver to detect and correct errors (with some limitations) without asking the sender for additional data. The advantages of FEC are that a back-channel is not required and retransmission of data can often be avoided though this is achieved at the cost of higher bandwidth requirements. FEC is therefore applied where retransmissions are relatively costly or impossible. In particular, FEC information is usually added to most mass storage devices to protect against damage to the stored data.
For instance, electrical or magnetic interference inside a computer system can cause a single bit of DRAM to flip to the opposite state. This problem can be mitigated by using DRAM modules that include extra (redundant) memory bits and memory controllers that exploit these bits. These extra bits are used to record parity or to use an ECC. Parity allows the detection of an odd number of wrong bits. The ECC may allow a single-bit error to be corrected and double-bit errors to be detected.
Error detection and correction in computer systems keeps going in and out of vogue. Seymour Cray famously said "parity is for farmers" to explain why he left it out of the CDC 6600. He included parity in the CDC 7600, and reputedly said "I learned that a lot of farmers buy computers."
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2002-06-28 OptiX 40Gb framer integrates FEC
A 40Gbps IC that integrates SONET/SDH and Optical Transport Network framing and forward error correction is available from OptiX Networks Inc.
2001-08-09 OC-192/STM-64 WAN uplink with FEC and intelligent network management for DWDM systems
This conference technical paper discusses DWDM systems and how Intel provides a comprehensive set of FEC devices for various applications.
2002-10-25 Mysticom backplane transceiver integrates FEC
Mysticom Ltd's MY3104 backplane transceiver features an integrated FEC capability on each channel and improves the bit error rate on wireless systems.
2002-09-17 Multilink Tech FEC processor consumes 3.5W
Multilink Technology Corp.'s MTC6134 Enhanced Forward Error correction (EFEC) digital wrapper processor that provides Metro applications with 8.5dB of net coding gain at 1x10-15 corrected BER, while dissipating 3.5W.
2001-10-19 Multi-rate S3078 CRU, S3067, S3062 PM with FEC and Sumitomo fiber optic transceiver
This application note describes a Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer solution for SONET/SDH data transfer with the use of the AMCC S3067 transceiver, S3078 limiting amplifier/CRU and S3062 performance monitor with FEC and Sumitomo SDM7128-XC fiber optic transceiver.
2001-10-19 Multi-rate S3076 CRU, S3067, S3062 PM with FEC and Sumitomo fiber optic transceiver
This application note describes a Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer solution for SONET/SDH data transfer with the use of the AMCC S3067 transceiver, S3076 CRU and S3062 performance monitor with FEC and Sumitomo SDM7128-XC fiber optic transceiver.
2010-03-18 FEC decoding
The application note aims to describe how one can implement the same FEC decoding in SW.
2004-01-16 Conexant satellite receiver with FEC decoder
Conexant Systems has introduced an advanced modulation satellite receiver with FEC decoder based on turbo codes.
2004-04-16 AMCC mappers tap FEC technology
Applied Micro Circuits has borrowed the enhanced FEC algorithms of its S3062 family and applied them to three related devices for mapping data services to 10Gb links.
2003-06-02 Using next-gen optical transport protocols
In the interim, evolutionary technologies like VC, LAPS and GFP will continue to gain traction in new equipment deployed all over the world.
2001-06-01 Turbo charging next-generation wireless, optical systems
High-speed wireless and optical communication architectures demand high-performance error correction and BER. New turbo decoding methods meet the performance demands of these systems.
2006-02-02 Tektronix rolls out new monitoring tool for video over IP
Tektronix Inc. announced the availability of the Spectra2|VQM (video quality measurement) monitoring solution for the diagnosis and analysis of streaming video transmitted over IP.
2005-05-27 Program speeds up turbo code selection for wireless comm apps
Cambridge Consultants disclosed that it has developed a software program that demystifies and accelerates the selection of turbo codes for wireless communication systems.
2004-04-22 Path 1 to show high-definition video gateway
Path 1 Network Technologies will extend its support for high-definition video-over-Internet Protocol with a multiport, bidirectional system.
2002-06-01 Optical-to-electrical conversion for long-haul networks
Find out important issues engineers should understand regarding optical-to-electrical conversions in networking systems used for wide-area connectivity apps.
2005-06-02 New floating-point and DVB-S2 cores strengthen DSP IP library
Xilinx updated its digital signal processing IP library for its Virtex-4 and Spartan-3E FPGA families to include a suite of floating-point operators and a DVB satellite FEC encoder core
2003-05-02 Negotiate your way to interference-free Bluetooth
If Bluetooth is to be widely-accepted, it has to be robust and reliable; manufacturers must include CQDDR and reliable BER measurement schemes in their designs to ensure this.
2002-08-01 Moving classification and forwarding to OC-768
This technical paper discusses how innovative solutions are required to operate with the innovative OC-768 system.
2001-08-16 Minimizing RF effects during PCB design
An essential read for all designing high-frequency boards, this article describes certain techniques that help minimize EMI effects on PCBs.
2004-08-19 LPDC core provides superior BER performance
Comtech AHA released a Low Density Parity Check Code Forward Error Correction encoder/decoder core.
2002-10-28 Increasing data throughput in radio telemetry systems
This application note will discuss factors affecting radio data network performance and also present solutions based on integrated circuit technology.
2001-03-26 Forward Error Correction In Optical Networks
This paper examines the FEC (forward error correction) techniques in optical networks developed primarily in the ANSI T1X1.5 committee and submitted for ITU ratification as formal recommendations.
2003-01-20 Conexant satellite demodulator operates from 0.5W
The single-stream CX24123 QPSK demodulator and FEC decoder supports symbol rates from 1 megasymbols per second (Msps) to 45Msps.
1999-06-29 Advances in satellite front-end technology give speed and cost-benefit system test, installation, and free to air operation
This paper reviews the possibilities of addressing issues of satellite TV through advances in the front-end technology used in a typical digital satellite receiver. The required enhancements are quantified, followed by a description of the design project intended to deliver these enhancements.
2003-08-01 A guide to short-range wireless design
Error handling and bandwidth sharing are two major issues for engineers working on wireless projects. Here's a lead to designing short-range wireless devices that covers these and other concerns.
2008-09-25 Mitel-Teleoptix picks AMCC's 10Gbit PHY technology
Mitel-Teleoptix has chosen AMCC's S19233 10Gb/FC/SONET/SDH/FEC Dual CDR integrated circuit technology for use in its XFP optical transceiver modules.
2012-06-21 IP cores cut opex, capex in networks
The expanded line of FEC IP cores from Xilinx include GFEC, EFEC and high gain FEC solutions extend the distance of a transmission while decreasing the number of regenerators along the route.
2008-12-01 IMEC pushes SDR effort forward
A variety of advanced FEC technologies used in a range of wireless WAN and LAN can be handled by a chip introduced by IMEC as part of its effort to assemble a full suite of silicon for software-defined radio.
2004-09-16 Conexant takes plunge for DVB-S2 wave
The company has announced CX24116, a chip that includes a demodulator and FEC unit, compliant with the DVB-S2 specification.
2011-03-28 ZTE announces record-breaking 10Tbps data transmission rate
ZTE claims to achieve a record-breaking rate of 10Tbps over 640km of optical fiber using its carrier generation technology generating 112 coherent and frequency-locked optical sub-carrier signals.
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